Density Mass Volume Calculator

Calculate the density of any object or substance

Density is something that we encounter daily when dealing with different everyday objects and materials. By understanding the relationship between volume, mass, and density, you may quickly solve for any missing units and having a calculator can help remove any guesswork that may be involved. Understanding the density of common substances is important in a variety of life situations, and can be especially useful in chemistry, physics, and thermodynamics. Let’s begin by reviewing what this calculator may be used for and continue to how you may use it.
What is density?
Density is a characteristic of a material, substance, or object. The density of an object or substance can tell you how compact it is or how much mass it may hold and it is something we are confronted with daily. An example of density can be seen in the way oil floats on water, but balsamic vinegar sinks in oil. One substance is denser than another, causing the heavier liquid to sink and the lighter one to rise to the top. Meanwhile, if you drop some ice cubes into soda, you’ll quickly find a solid that can float.
Density, also known as volumetric mass density, is the measure of the amount of mass contained in a unit of volume. While the most common use of density is to explain how different materials interact when they are mixed. Using density we can explain why an anchor sinks in water whereas a wooden board floats, or why a helium balloon lifts off into the air.
Generally speaking, solids are denser than liquids, and liquids are denser than gases, but this is not always the case as there are many exceptions to the rules. Further, the density of an object can be affected by temperature and pressure – changing the way the atoms and molecules are bonded to each other. For instance, graphite and diamond are both pure substances formed from carbon but subject to different pressure at formation. The result- two pure carbon substances that actually have different density values.
Therefore, understanding the relationship between density, volume, and mass is a fundamental concept in analyzing how materials interact in sciences, geology, global warming, fluid mechanics, engineering, and even aspects of physics. Please continue reading to learn about the density of common substances and a guide to using the volume mass density calculator.
Density of common substances
Density is measured in a variety of units due to its diverse application in chemistry, thermodynamics, energy, and engineering- among many others. However, the International Standard System of Measurement for density is in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m^3), with another common measurement in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm^3) – a cgs unit. You can easily convert to kg/m^3 by multiplying any g/cm^3 by 1000. Below is a table on common substances and their densities.
MaterialDensity (g/cm^3)State
Hydrogen0.00009Gas (standard temp + pressure: STP)
Helium0.000178Gas (STP)
Air0.001293Gas (STP)
Ethanol (grain alcohol)0.810Liquid
Water0.998Liquid (20°C)
Water1.000 Liquid (4°C)
Ocean water1.03Liquid
Coal1.1 – 1.4Solid
Copper8.3 – 9.0Solid
White dwarf star10^7Solid
Often density of one substance is measured against another, which is referred to as relative density or specific gravity. The reference material can be anything, however pure water (at a density value of 1) is the most common reference. Anything with a relative density less than one will float, while anything with a relative density greater than one will sink.
For any material, substances, or gases not found in the chart, you can easily use the calculator to figure out the volume mass or density of any object or substance.
Density formula
A Greek scientist named Archimedes, born 287 BC, who also happened to be a mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer, was the first to define density and its properties- thus density is usually represented by the Greek letter “ρ” (rho).
Mathematically the relationship between density, mass, and volume can be expressed through a simple triangle, where ρ represents density, m represents mass, and V represents volume:
Density formula
When it comes to this triangle, the following rules are applicable:
• Variables that are beside each other can be multiplied to find a missing variable
• Variables one above another can be divided to find a missing variable.
Therefore, the formulas can be derived as follows:
Density = Mass ÷ Volume
Mass = Density x Volume
Volume = Mass ÷ Density
Using the formulas or the density mass volume calculator can assist in your understanding in many fields of study, as density is a far-reaching subject. It is a useful skill that is tested daily, even without realization. Don’t take chances when it comes to your calculations and always check your work.
You may bookmark this page on your desktop or smart phone for instant access to this great tool and share us on social media to help others better understand the properties and uses of density, mass, and volume.
Using the calculator
The volume density mass calculator is very easy to use and only requires information relative to the object, substance, or gas you are studying.
Step 1: You must first decide which variable you would like to solve for- density, volume, or mass.
Step 2 a: To solve for density you should add a value for volume and mass to the second and third line of the calculator, using the arrow keys to make this selection even easier.
Step 2 b: To solve for volume you should add a value for density and mass on the first and third line of the calculator, using the arrow keys when necessary.
Step 2 c: To solve for mass please add a value for density and volume on the first and second line of the calculator, using the arrow keys if needed.
Step 3: You should select a unit of measurement for all three variables, even the one that is left blank- as this tells the calculator what unit to compute your result in. The units should be consistent between the three variables; however, the calculator can do conversions if you do not have matching units of measure.
Step 4: Please hit the “Calculate” button to populate the missing variable
Step 5: Please hit “Reset” to make another calculation.